Writing extended essay abstract

Your major essay parts should be bold, whereas other subsections should be indented from the left margin. Your abstract should take no more than words. It is a small summary or synopsis of your essay, which mentions the focus of writing. It should be written in 3 rd person. You should state your research question. Sometimes instructors ask to include a word count of the abstract in the end of the page. Your abstract should be placed right after Table of Contents.

How to Write an Extended Essay of the Top Quality

Your task is to introduce the topic. Please provide enough details for the reader to properly comprehend your research question and what you attempt to discuss.

International Baccalaureate/Extended Essay Tips - Wikibooks, open

Remember that in comparison with simple essay writing, an extended essay should be based on a clear research question. It remains the central idea of your paper, which should be explored in the whole paper. In order to reach good results in writing, you should focus on a narrow topic. Focusing on a limited scope and narrowed topic will give you an opportunity to explore it to the full by providing relevant details only.

Always state your research question in this essay part.

Since extended essay writing usually takes around words, your introduction should include enough details about the research question under analysis. Usually introduction is a part that enables readers to see how well you can identify the research question, if you managed to gather relevant information and extract the essence, etc. Do not forget not only to introduce your research question, but also state why it is worth exploring and what made you choose this specific topic unless your topic was assigned by the professor.

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Every introductory paragraph should include a thesis statement or your hypothesis about the research question. Please differentiate between a thesis statement and research question. Now you can move on to the creation of main body sections. As we have already mentioned, it is a part that relates to introduction. It should be placed in the end of introductory paragraph. Afterwards, the rest of the paper should be a response to the suggested thesis. Make sure you include a clear, organized, and well-expressed thesis that does not imply any logical fallacy.

Defend your thesis in main body paragraphs and restate it in conclusion. However, in extensive essays, one can usually find the following points:. You can find various option of how to organize your main body paragraphs in an extended essay on the web. However, the main point is to clearly express your research question and introduce relevant evidence only. Your arguments should sound convincing and valid.


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Do not think that presenting research ideas of others is a good way out. In essay writing, readers expect to see your standpoint as well. For this reason, you should apply both critical and analytical skills to impress your reader to accept your points of view.


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  • Remember that you should follow a specific plan by creating your main body sections. It is preferable to refer to both primary and secondary sources. Always focus on credible sources only because your professor may claim that your textual evidence is of no scientific value. Your conclusion should discuss the same research question, but in different words. The task of a writer is to restate a thesis and provide a logical explanation why it is correct. If you have some unsolved questions that require additional research, please mention it as well.

    All essays must be supervised by a school supervisor.

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    Many of the best essays are written by students investigating relatively simple phenomena using apparatus and materials that can be found in most school laboratories, and this approach is to be encouraged. If the practical work is carried out in an industrial or university laboratory, the essay should be accompanied by a letter from the external supervisor outlining the nature of the supervision and the level of guidance provided.

    The school supervisor must be satisfied that the work described in the essay is genuine and essentially that of the student.

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    Data collected from an experiment designed by the student is of little value unless it is analysed using appropriate scientific techniques, evaluated and perhaps compared with appropriate models. It is possible to produce an extended essay in chemistry in which the student has used data collected elsewhere as the primary source.

    In such cases, the element of personal analysis and evaluation is extremely important. In any chemistry extended essay, students should be able to demonstrate that they understand the theory underlying any experimental work and state any assumptions made. They should show an understanding of the results obtained and be able to interpret them with reference to the research question posed.

    They should be critical of inadequate experimental design, the limitations of the experimental method and any systematic errors. Students should be encouraged to consider unresolved questions in their research, and to suggest new questions and areas for further investigation in their conclusion.

    Throughout the whole of the essay, students should emphasize clearly their own personal contribution. Many research questions can be formulated as an actual question or questions. However, in chemistry extended essays it is perfectly reasonable to formulate the research question as a statement or as a hypothesis rather than an actual question. Whichever way it is formulated, it should be identified clearly as the research question and set out prominently in the introduction. The purpose of the introduction is to set the research question into context, that is, to relate the research question to existing knowledge in chemistry.

    It is usually appropriate to include also the underlying chemical theory required to understand how the research question has arisen. For the essay to make sense, it would be important to state the ages of the rocks and give some geological background.

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    In such cases, only the essential non-chemistry information should be provided in the introduction, as the essay will be marked on its chemical content. If it is necessary to include more non-chemistry for example, geological information, then the appropriate place for it is the appendix. The way in which the investigation is undertaken will depend very much on whether or not the essay contains experimental work performed by the student.

    For non-experimental essays, students should endeavour to show clearly how the data has been selected.


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    They should distinguish between primary sources original scientific publications, personal communications, interviews and secondary sources textbooks, newspaper articles, reviews , and show awareness of how reliable these sources are. For experimental work, sufficient information should be provided so that the work could be repeated if necessary by an independent worker. Students should make it clear which experiments they have designed themselves and which they have altered, adapted or improved from existing methods.

    Students should show that they understand fully the underlying chemistry behind the context of their research question and their subsequent investigation. They are not expected to explain basic chemistry forming part of the Diploma Programme chemistry course, but they are expected to show that they fully understand the relevant principles and ideas and can apply them correctly.

    They should also demonstrate that they understand the theory behind any techniques or apparatus used. Students should be aware of the need to give their essays the backbone of a developing argument. A good argument in chemistry will almost certainly include consideration and comparison of different approaches and methods directly relevant to the research question.

    Straightforward descriptive or narrative accounts that lack analysis do not usually advance an argument and should be avoided. Criterion F: application of analytical and evaluative skills appropriate to the subject. A thorough understanding of the reliability of all data used to support the argument should be shown. Inadequate experimental design or any systematic errors should be exposed. The magnitude of uncertainties in physical data should be evaluated and discussed.

    Approximations in models should be accounted for and all assumptions examined thoroughly. Where possible, the quality of sources accessed or data generated should be verified by secondary sources or by direct calculations. Correct chemical terminology and nomenclature should be used consistently and effectively throughout the extended essay. Relevant chemical formulas including structural formulas , balanced equations including state symbols and mechanisms should be included.

    The correct units for physical quantities must always be given and the proper use of significant figures is expected. The conclusion must be consistent with the argument presented and should not merely repeat material in the introduction or introduce new or extraneous points to the argument. In chemistry, it is almost always pertinent to consider unresolved questions and to suggest areas for further investigation. This criterion relates to the extent to which the essay conforms to academic standards about the way in which research papers should be presented.

    The presentation of essays that omit a bibliography or that do not give references is deemed unacceptable level 0. The essay must not exceed 4, words of narrative. Graphs, figures, calculations, diagrams, formulas and equations are not included in the word count. For experiments where numerical results are calculated from data obtained by changing one of the variables, it is generally good practice to show one example of the calculation.

    The remainder can be displayed in tabular or graphical form.

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    The Extended Essay - Introduction Conclusion and Abstract by Deborah Kelly on Prezi

    The abstract is judged on the clarity with which it presents an overview of the research and the essay, not on the quality of the research question itself, nor on the quality of the argument or the conclusions. Intellectual initiative: Ways of demonstrating this in chemistry essays include the choice of topic and research question, and the use of novel or innovative approaches to address the research question.

    Insight and depth of understanding: These are most likely to be demonstrated as a consequence of detailed research and thorough reflection, and by a well-informed and reasoned argument that consistently and effectively addresses the research question. Originality and creativity: These will be apparent by clear evidence of a personal approach backed up by solid research and reasoning.

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