Source Women's empowerment is a critical aspect of achieving gender equality. It includes increasing a woman's sense of self-worth, her decision-making power, her access to opportunities and resources, her power and control over her own life inside and outside the home, and her ability to effect change.
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Source Yet gender issues are not focused on women alone, but on the relationship between men and women in society. Source The actions and attitudes of men and boys play an essential role in achieving gender equality. Education is a key area of focus. Although the world is making progress in achieving gender parity in education, girls still make up a higher percentage of out-of-school children than boys.
Source Approximately one quarter of girls in the developing world do not attend school. Typically, families with limited means who cannot afford costs such as school fees, uniforms, and supplies for all of their children will prioritize education for their sons. Source Families may also rely on girls' labor for household chores, carrying water, and childcare, leaving limited time for schooling. But prioritizing girls' education provides perhaps the single highest return on investment in the developing world. An educated girl is more likely to postpone marriage, raise a smaller family, have healthier children, and send her own children to school.
She has more opportunities to earn an income and to participate in political processes, and she is less likely to become infected with HIV. Women's health and safety is another important area. Source This can be related to women having fewer opportunities for health education, unequal power in sexual partnership, or as a result of gender-based violence. Maternal health is also an issue of specific concern. In many countries, women have limited access to prenatal and infant care, and are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and childbirth.
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This is a critical concern in countries where girls marry and have children before they are ready; often well before the age of Source Quality maternal health care can provide an important entry point for information and services that empower mothers as informed decision-makers concerning their own health and the health of their children. A final area of focus in attaining gender equality is women's economic and political empowerment.
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Source Throughout the world, women and girls perform long hours of unpaid domestic work. In some places, women still lack rights to own land or to inherit property, obtain access to credit, earn income, or to move up in their workplace, free from job discrimination. Source At all levels, including at home and in the public arena, women are widely underrepresented as decision-makers. In legislatures around the world, women are outnumbered 4 to 1, yet women's political participation is crucial for achieving gender equality and genuine democracy.
The World Economic Forum recently ranked the United States as 19th in the world on its gender gap index. Source With women comprising less than one fifth of elected members of Congress, the report identifies political empowerment as the greatest gender equity issue for the United States. The U. Source Women in the United States have a very high ranking of educational attainment, though, with high levels of literacy and enrollment in primary, secondary, and university education.
At present, there are more U. Sexism occurs when men and women are framed within two dimensions of social cognition. Discrimination also plays out with networking and in preferential treatment within the economic market. Men typically occupy positions of power within the job economy. Due to taste or preference for other men because they share similar characteristics, men in these positions of power are more likely to hire or promote other men, thus discriminating against women. Sonja B. However, the study does not purport to explain why this is the case.
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Starr does not believe that men are disadvantaged generally. The New York Film Academy took a closer look at the women in Hollywood and gathered statistics from the top films from to , for their history and achievements, or lack of. There was a ratio of men to women working in films. Hollywood actresses are paid less than actors. Topping Forbes ' highest paid actors list of was Robert Downey Jr. In the Academy Awards , men were nominated for an award, but only 35 women were nominated.
No woman was nominated for directing, cinematography, film editing, writing original screenplay , or original score that year. Since the Academy Awards began in , only seven women producers have won the Best Picture category all of whom were co-producers with men , and only eight women have been nominated for Best Original Screenplay. This movement is built on the basis of men speaking out against sexual misconduct against females.
The letter has been signed and supported by Friends actor David Schwimmer, shown above, among many others. As men, we have a special responsibility to prevent abuse from happening in the first place After all, the vast majority of sexual harassment, abuse and violence is perpetrated by men, whether in Hollywood or not.
This initiative was created in response to the MeToo movement.
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Gender inequality and discrimination are argued to cause and perpetuate poverty and vulnerability in society as a whole. Gender Equity Indices seek to provide the tools to demonstrate this feature of poverty. Poverty has many different factors, one of which is the gender wage gap. There are many difficulties in creating a comprehensive response. Gender is mentioned in MDG3 and MDG5: MDG3 measures gender parity in education, the share of women in wage employment and the proportion women in national legislatures.
Addressing gender inequality through social protection programmes designed to increase equity would be an effective way of reducing gender inequality, according to the Overseas Development Institute ODI. The ODI maintains that society limits governments' ability to act on economic incentives. NGOs tend to protect women against gender inequality and structural violence. During war, combatants primarily target men. Both sexes die however, due to disease, malnutrition and incidental crime and violence, as well as the battlefield injuries which predominately affect men.
Conversely figures for war deaths in , almost all relating to civil war, gave ratios in the order of 1. Another opportunity to tackle gender inequality is presented by modern information and communication technologies. In a carefully controlled study,  it has been shown that women embrace digital technology more than men. Given that digital information and communication technologies have the potential to provide access to employment, education, income, health services, participation, protection, and safety, among others ICT4D , the natural affinity of women with these new communication tools provide women with a tangible bootstrapping opportunity to tackle social discrimination.
Gender inequality is a result of the persistent discrimination of one group of people based upon gender and it manifests itself differently according to race, culture, politics, country, and economic situation. It is furthermore considered a causal factor of violence against women. The causes and effects of gender inequality vary geographically, as do methods for combating it.
One example of the continued existence of gender inequality in Asia is the " missing girls " phenomenon. In China, females are perceived as less valuable for labor and unable to provide sustenance. Gender inequality exists because of gender stereotypes in rural China. For example, families may consider that it is useless for girls to acquire knowledge at school because they will marry someone eventually, and their major responsibility is to take care of housework.
Furthermore, the current formal education in Asia might be also a result of the historical tendencies.
Discussion of findings
For instance, insufficient supply and demand for education of women reflect the development of numeracy levels throughout Asia between Regions like South and West Asia had low numeracy levels during the early and midth century. As a consequence, there were no significant gender equality trends. East Asia in its turn was characterized by a high numeracy level and gender equality. The success of this region is related to the higher education and hence higher participation rate of females in the economic life of the region.